Filled Under: *Oscars

“It Happened One Night” Sweeps the 1934 Academy Awards

 

At the 7th Academy Awards for 1934, held on February 27, 1935 at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California, Frank Capra’s romantic comedy “It Happened One Night” became the first film to perform a “clean sweep” of the top five categories; Best Picture, Best Director (Frank Capra), Best Actor (Clark Gable), Best Actress (Claudette Colbert) and Best Screenplay (Robert Riskin).

 

“It Happened One Night” (1934 – Columbia Pictures) won the Oscar for Best Picture

 

“It Happened One Night” (1934) is an American romantic comedy directed by Frank Capra, in which a pampered socialite (Claudette Colbert) tries to get out from under her father’s thumb, and falls in love with a roguish reporter (Clark Gable).

 

Frank Capra with his Oscar for best director for “It Happened One Night” (1934)

 

Clark Gable gave his Oscar for “It Happened One Night” to a child who admired it, telling him it was the winning of the statue that had mattered, not owning it. The child returned the Oscar to the Gable family after Clark’s death.

 

Clark Gable with his Oscar for Best Actor in “It Happened One Night” (1934)

 

Claudette Colbert was so convinced that she would lose the Oscar competition to write-in nominee Bette Davis, that she decided not to attend the awards ceremony. When Colbert won the Academy Award for Best Actress she was summoned from a train station to pick up her Oscar.

 

Shirley Temple gives Claudette Colbert her Oscar for Best Actress in “It Happened One Night” (1934)

 

Robert Riskin won the Oscar for Best Screenplay for “It Happened One Night” (1934)

 

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Hattie McDaniel: An Oscar Legend

 

“Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, fellow members of the motion picture industry and honored guests: This is one of the happiest moments of my life, and I want to thank each one of you who had a part in selecting me for one of their awards, for your kindness. It has made me feel very, very humble; and I shall always hold it as a beacon for anything that I may be able to do in the future. I sincerely hope I shall always be a credit to my race and to the motion picture industry. My heart is too full to tell you just how I feel, and may I say thank you and God bless you.” — Hattie McDaniel’s acceptance speech at the 12th Annual Academy Awards held on Feb 29, 1940.

 

Hattie McDaniel: An Oscar Legend

Hattie McDaniel: An Oscar Legend

 

In 1940, “Gone With The Wind” dominated the Oscars, winning eight Academy Awards, a record that stood for twenty years. The most significant and historic Oscar awarded that night was the one that was given to Hattie McDaniel for Best Supporting Actress for her role as “Mammy” in “Gone With The Wind”. In winning the award, McDaniel became the first African-American to ever win an Academy Award. She was also the first African-American, who wasn’t a servant,  to ever attend an Academy Award  Banquet. It would be twenty four years before another African-American would be awarded another Oscar.

 

Hattie McDaniel with her Oscar for Best Supporting Actress (Gone With The Wind 1939) and Fay Bainter who presented Hattie with her Oscar at the Academy

Hattie McDaniel with her Oscar for Best Supporting Actress (Gone With The Wind 1939) and Fay Bainter who presented Hattie with her Oscar at the Academy Awards on Feb 29, 1940.

 

Louella Parsons, an American gossip columnist, wrote about Oscar night of 1940:  “Hattie McDaniel earned that gold Oscar, by her fine performance of “Mammy” in Gone with the Wind. If you had seen her face when she walked up to the platform and took the gold trophy, you would have had the choke in your voice that all of us had when Hattie, hair trimmed with gardenias, face alight, and dress up to the queen’s taste, accepted the honor in one of the finest speeches ever given on the Academy floor. She put her heart right into those words and expressed not only for herself, but for every member of her race, the gratitude she felt that she had been given recognition by the Academy. Fay Bainter, with voice trembling, introduced Hattie and spoke of the happiness she felt in bestowing upon the beaming actress Hollywood’s greatest honor. Her proudest possession is the red silk petticoat that David Selznick gave her when she finished Gone with the Wind”.

 

Hattie McDaniel and Vivien Leigh in "Gone With The Wind" (1939)

Hattie McDaniel and Vivien Leigh in “Gone With The Wind” (1939)

Gone With The Wind premiered on December 15, 1939 at the Loew’s Grand Theater on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia. As the date of the premiere approached, all the black actors from the film, including Hattie McDaniel, were barred from attending and excluded from being in the souvenir program. Gone With The Wind’s producer, David O. Selznick,  had attempted to bring McDaniel, but MGM advised him not to because of Georgia’s segregationist laws, which would have prevented McDaniel from sitting in the theatre with her white peers and co-stars. Clark Gable angrily threatened to boycott the Atlanta premiere unless McDaniel was allowed to attend, but McDaniel convinced him to attend anyway. While the Jim Crow laws kept McDaniel from the Atlanta premiere, she did attend the Hollywood debut on December 28, 1939. This time her photo was featured in the program upon Selznick’s insistence, as it would be everywhere else except in the south.

 

Hattie McDaniel as 'Mammy' in "Gone With The Wind" (1939)

Hattie McDaniel as ‘Mammy’ in “Gone With The Wind” (1939)

 

Hattie McDaniel was already an accomplished radio and film actress when auditions began, but competition for the role of “Mammy” in Gone With The Wind was almost as fierce as the one for the part of Scarlet O’Hara. Eleanor Roosevelt herself even wrote to film producer David O. Selznik to ask him to consider her own maid Elizabeth McDuffie for the role. Clark Gable, who was already good friends with Hattie McDaniel, wanted McDaniel for the role of “Mammy”. When McDaniel showed up already dressed as a maid and nailed the audition, she was given the part.

 

Hattie McDaniel and Clark Gable -- Gone With The Wind (1939)

Hattie McDaniel and Clark Gable — Gone With The Wind (1939)

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